PLT®

How do I decide what rate to use?

The rate of PLT® to be used can differ based on litter age, litter quality, previous litter management, floor moisture, and ammonia flux. Our rates take into effect all of thesevariables. The PLT® Product Data Sheet recommends the following:

  • Broiler litter: 1 year old or less – 75-100-lbs. / 1,000 sq. ft. of floor space
  • Broiler litter: Older than 1 year – 100-150-lbs. / 1,000 sq. ft. of floor space
  • Windrowed litter – 150+ lbs. / 1,000 sq. ft. of floor space
What does the “PLT® Cloud” mean?

The PLT® cloud is seen if the house is not properly purged of ammonia prior to application. It is a non-toxic fog that forms when PLT® reacts with ammonia gas in the environment. If the cloud is heavy and dense, you will loose significant amounts of longevity of PLT®. Consult the PLT® Product Data Sheet for proper application procedures.

How does relative humidity impact PLT®?

The activity of PLT® can and will be directly impacted by the relative humidity percentage (RH %) in the house. The ideal RH % range for baby chicks as well as PLT® is the same— between 50% to 70% If the RH % is below 50% the PLT® reacts very slowly with the ammonia releasing from the floor. RH % below 50% also contributes to dehydration of baby chicks.

On the other hand, if the RH % is above 70%, the opposite will happen. The extra moisture will cause the PLT® to activate too quickly, decreasing the longevity of ammonia control.

How does PLT® impact paw quality?

PLT® improves paw quality. Ammonia in the damp areas of the litter is corrosive to the skin and causes Foot Pad Dermatitis development. When PLT® is applied and the ammonia in the damp areas is neutralized, paw lesions are significantly reduced. Remember, it is OK to re-apply PLT® in wet areas during the flock to reduce ammonia damage to the paws.

Why shouldn’t I apply PLT® 3-5 days before placement?

Because PLT® and most litter amendments are hygroscopic, meaning they start to activate immediately upon application. When PLT® is applied this far in advance, it will activate with the large amount of ammonia that comes off the floor during pre-heating. This wastes the PLT® that was applied and leaves little product available to bind ammonia once the chicks or poults arrive.

Why is floor temperature important when applying PLT®?

PLT® can be applied on a cold floor, BUT the product will start reacting with ammonia as soon as it is applied. When the house is preheating, the ammonia purge will start and will peak at around 85 degrees. If the PLT® is applied prior to the floor reaching 85 degrees, it will be consumed by the ammonia purge leaving very little to control ammonia during the rest of the brooding period.

What happens to ammonia when litter is heated?

The two drivers of ammonia release from the litter are temperature and surface area. When heat is applied to the litter to prepare for bird placement, the increased temperature drives ammonia from the floor into the air. From a bird performance aspect, it is critical that the ammonia purge caused by pre-heating take place prior to PLT® application and bird placement to increase the longevity of ammonia control well into the brooding period.

Should I use PLT® in the off chamber?

Yes. When it is time to move birds down, a 24 hour preheat period is usually standard procedure. Unfortunately, just as ammonia purged in the brood chamber at pre-placement, the ammonia will purge off the off chamber floor once the floor reaches 80-85 degrees. This can occur as late as 36-48 hours post move down. The ammonia purge during this time will have significant impact on the performance of the birds causing a loss of weight and feed conversion. By applying PLT® one (1) hour prior to move down, it will drastically reduce ammonia challenge, help birds migrate faster, and minimize vaccination stress thus increasing your bottom line..

Should I spray the litter with water if it is too dry?

No. If you spray the floor with water, you will create a wet surface area that will chill baby birds.

How does PLT® affect the litter pH?

pH is the measure of the concentration of the hydrogen ions in solution. The greater the concentration of hydrogen ions, the lower the pH. Most broiler litter has a pH of 7.5-8.5 prior to PLT® application. Once PLT® is applied, the surface pH can drop to 1.8-2.0 making the surface of the litter acidic. This is what neutralizes the ammonia being released from the litter surface.

What should I maintain as my minimum litter depth?

The ideal litter depth for a typical broiler production should be about 6 inches. Less litter depth will cause the loss of insulating value of the litter and will reduce absorptive capacity. This will cause more fuel usage and it will be harder for the birds to maintain body temperature during brooding. When litter depth gets over 10 inches it becomes harder to manage the moisture, beetles and ammonia flux creating a harsh environment for the flocks.

How long can I reuse my litter?

There are a lot of different opinions on this with in the industry today. It is our opinion that built up litter /manure can be successfully utilized for about 24-36 months at the most. After that, manure loads become so high that ammonia release is exaggerated. Growers can either clean-out or strip the litter from the sidewalls to reduce the manure load.

How do moisture levels in litter affect house management?

Moisture in the litter is a necessary contributor to relative humidity inside a poultry house. When litter is pre-heated, moisture is released from the litter contributing to proper relative humidity in the house. When litter is too dry and fine, it is difficult to reach proper relative humidity levels of 50-70% causing dehydration of birds. When litter is too wet, caking occurs easily and ammonia levels can be high later on.

Is PLT® corrosive?

No. The most corrosive substance in the poultry house is ammonia.

I have wet spots on my chick paper. What does that mean?

Wet spots are a sign of proper PLT® activation. PLT® is hygroscopic and the wet spots indicate that product is melting and activating properly.

I don’t smell much ammonia. Can I cut my PLT® rate?

We all become desensitized to ammonia fairly quick after starting a poultry operation. It is not uncommon for producers, service techs and other company management to not be able to detect ammonia levels high as 80-100ppm. Just because you don’t smell it doesn’t mean you don’t have damaging amounts of ammonia at bird level. Remember that birds are closer to the source of ammonia.

How does using PLT® save fuel?

PLT® allows a poultry house to be ventilated for relative humidity during brooding rather than needing to be over-ventilated for ammonia removal.

Is it ok if PLT® gets in the feed?

Yes. The main ingredient in PLT® is also classified as a feed additive

I applied PLT® as directed, but I still had ammonia when my birds arrived. What happened?

One of two things occurred, both resulting in insufficient amounts of PLT® left in the house by the time the birds arrived. Using a rate of PLT® that is too low for your litter age and ammonia challenge will result in all of the PLT® being exhausted before birds arrive. Also, applying PLT® prior to the ammonia purge that occurs during pre-heating can bind all of the PLT® that was applied in the pre-heating process leaving no PLT® in the house when the birds arrive. Following proper application procedures of PLT® will prevent this from happening the next flock.

Is it safe to apply PLT® with birds in the house?

Yes. PLT® is the only litter amendment that can be safely applied or reapplied after birds are present in the house. This can be done anytime during the grow-out to shift the pH to a more biologically effective level.

How does PLT® increase my fertilizer value?

PLT® binds the ammonia in the house converting it into ammonium sulfate. For every 100-lbs of PLT® applied, 54-lbs ammonium sulfate is formed. This nitrogen is plant available after land application.

Is PLT® hazardous?

The major ingredient in PLT® is sodium bisulfate which is used in both human and animal foods. Sodium bisulfate is included in the class of compounds know as acid salts. Compared to other acid salts, Sodium Bisulfate is one of the lowest cost and safest available. It is considered non-hazardous by DOT, therefore not regulated. OSHA identifies it as an irritant and the NFPA hazard rating is 1-0-1, very low compared to other acids. If it is spilled it can be swept up, avoiding the environmental headaches associated with liquid acids.

Why do I have to turn on fans and drop curtains before application?

This quickly removes the ammonia released from the litter during pre-heating. Removing this large amount of ammonia from the pre-heating process will allow the PLT® being applied to be reserved for when the birds arrive. Not removing this ammonia can results in a 3-4 day loss of PLT longevity.

How long will PLT® last?

If you use the proper rate of PLT® for litter conditions and follow the proper application procedures, you can expect PLT® to last for the entire brooding period.

PWT®

How do I decide what rate to use?

Two factors determine how much PWT® is needed on a given farm: end-use of PWT® (crop acidification or chlorine management) and characteristics of the water source (pH and alkalinity). Refer to the rate chart for the appropriate amount in each situation.

How much PWT® is too much?

The pH of the drinking water should not go below a pH of 3.0.

Is alkalinity important when testing water?

Yes. Alkalinity is a measure of the carbonates in a water source that will bind to the PWT® or any water acidifier. Only after all of the carbonates in the water are bound by the PWT® will the pH begin to drop. The higher the alkalinity of a water source, the more PWT® or any other acid will be needed to reach the target pH.

What is the difference between PWT® and citric acid or vinegar?

PWT® is a strong, mineral acid while citric acid and vinegar are weak organic acids. PWT® has a low addition rate and a pleasing taste to birds while organic acids such as citric acid taste bitter causing birds to reduce water consumption.

How long should I run PWT®?

PWT® should be run for the first 7-10 days the birds are placed in the house, around feed changes, and prior to processing. More information about usage for different types of birds can be found here.

What is pH?

pH is the measure of the number of hydrogen ions in solution. The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the lower the pH will be.

Will birds drink water at a low pH of 3.5?

Yes, if it is acidified with a mineral acid such as PWT®. Because mineral acids easily donate hydrogen ions into a solution, they have a low addition rate and a pleasing taste to birds.

I have never run PWT® before. Is it ok to run it mid-flock?

If you have never used PWT® before, it is recommended to use it for the first time while the house is empty. Because PWT® cleans the water lines so thoroughly, dislodging lots of biofilm and residual material in the lines, a high pressure flush is needed to remove that debris from the water lines. Using PWT® with birds in the house for the first time will make it difficult to remove all of the debris dislodged by the cleaning process possibly causing clogged nipples and birds to ingest the dirty material.

What is the “junk” that is coming out of the drinkers when I flush?

The material coming out of the drinker lines after cleaning with PWT® is euphemistically referred to as “water line snot.” It is a combination of biofilm, mineral scale, and water additive build-up and all of the micro-organisms that feed off of those residuals.

Can I mix PWT® and bleach together?

No. Chlorine bleach is a very volatile chemical and must never be mixed with any other chemical directly. Mixing chlorine bleach with other chemicals can be fatal. If you are using PWT® to maximize chlorine efficacy, then two separate medicators should be used to add each chemical to the water stream independently as shown here.

How do I properly test water to determine addition rate of PWT®?

A sample of the water can be taken either at the well or at the entrance to the house. A pool test kit or test strips can be used to determine the pH and alkalinity of the water source. Once that is known, use the chart below to determine addition rate.

 

Do I need to make fresh solution everyday?

No. Unlike antibiotics and other water additives, PWT® is very stable when mixed. A stock solution of PWT® will maintain its potency for at least 30 days.

Does PWT® help bird performance?

Yes. By acidifying the crop, PWT® helps the bird in digestion and the maintenance of healthy gut microflora.

How does crop acidification work?

Many have experienced success with water acidification programs that are properly designed to deliver the right pH at the right times.. But given that water acidification doesn’t seem to change the pH in the intestines, how does it work? The answer seems to lie in the difference between the original pattern of gut movement and digestion in birds and the altered pattern on modern commercial diets. There are several areas in a bird’s gut where movement is actually a two-way street. When a bird was eating whole grain and bugs, the meal would go from the proventriculus to the gizzard for grinding. Then the gizzard would send the meal backwards to the proventriculus for another acid bath. This might happen 5 or 6 times until the meal was ground finely enough to move on to the intestines. In a commercial mash or pelleted diet, this back and forth movement between the gizzard and the proventriculus is dramatically reduced so there is very little acid contact time of the meal in the proventriculus. With a diet that includes whole grains this back and forth movement is frequently repeated before the meal is allowed to enter the intestine increasing acid contact time many fold. The most plausible explanation for the efficacy of acidifying water below a pH of 4.0 in improving performance and in impacting Salmonella and necrotic enteritis is that by acidifying the ingesta in the crop, that low-pH contact time lost to impaired gizzard reflux is being compensated for.

Will PWT® clog my drinker lines?

No. It is the debris being dislodged from the dirty drinker system that could possible clog the lines if it isn’t flushed out promptly and thoroughly.

How long should I leave PWT® in the lines when I clean between flocks?

The first time you use PWT® in a house for cleaning, it should only be left in the lines about 8 hours due to the large amounts of debris that is removed during the cleaning process. This will facilitate the removal of this gelatinous material from the drinker system. After PWT® has been used to clean the drinker system, then it can be left in the lines as long as 24 hours prior to flushing.

How often should I clean my drinkers?

At the end of every flock and after running any type of water additive such as electrolytes or vitamins.

Should PWT® be run after I use electrolytes or vitamins?

Yes. This will remove any residual material from the water additives that can be a food source for bacteria.

Is PWT® approved for animal consumption?

Yes. PWT® is approved by the FDA as an animal feed additive.

SAS®

What Is SAS®?

SAS® is a natural mineral acid salt approved for pH control of processing water in meat and poultry plants.

Why is SAS® used in poultry and meat processing water?

Chlorination of processing and chiller water is the most commonly used sanitation system in poultry and meat processing. Chlorine requires a pH of 5.0-6.0 in order for it to be in its most effective form (hypochlorous acid). In most processing plants, the incoming water is not in this correct pH range. SAS® is used to keep the processing water at a pH of 5.0-6.0 in order to allow free chlorine to be in its most effective form. It is also used independently in scalders and finishing chillers when the target pH is 2.0.

Will the use of SAS® increase my free chlorine levels?

No. Using SAS® to control pH only determines what form the free chlorine is in and does not alter the amount of free chlorine present. The amount of free chlorine present is independent of the water pH.

Is SAS® compatible with on-line reprocessing systems and antimicrobial rinses?

Yes. SAS® can be used with all of the chemicals used in OLR or antimicrobial rinse systems. Because each of these chemicals alters the water stream in a different way, the amount of SAS® needed will vary between systems.

Can I just monitor antimicrobial kill potential with ORP?

ORP (oxidation reduction potential) is a trend indicator that measures the oxidizing potential of a system. However, ORP is best used only as part of the feedback loop in an automated delivery system. ORP measures everything in the system that is an oxidizer, not just free chlorine, so you can have good ORP readings in the body of the chiller without having good bacterial killing efficacy.

Why is pH important for chlorine germicidal activity?

The disinfecting power of chlorine is dependent on the pH of the processing water. If the pH of the processing water is above a 6.5, it reduces the disinfecting power of free chlorine. At pH 5.0 – 6.0, over 96% of the free chlorine is in the form of hypochlorous acid—which is 100 times more effective at killing bacteria than hypochlorite ion.

What should my chlorine and pH targets be for maximum chlorine efficacy?

Total chlorine should be provided in sufficient levels to achieve a minimum of 2-3 PPM free chlorine. The pH should be maintained between a 5.0-6.0. These two parameters occur independently of each other but both must be continually maintained for effective bacterial control. Using this target range gives you a margin of safety if the pH drifts slightly above or below the target.

Does organic load affect the amount of chlorine needed?

When chlorine is added to water it creates what is called free chlorine. Free chlorine reacts with the organic matter including blood, fat, and bacteria. Once the chlorine reacts and becomes bound to the organic matter, it no longer has disinfectant properties. If there is more organic matter in the water than the amount of total chlorine being added, there will be no free chlorine present.

How do I monitor the antimicrobial kill potential of my chlorinated water?

Total chlorine, free chlorine, and pH should be measured at a minimum of three locations in each stage of the pre-chiller and chiller. Bird entrance, middle, and bird exit are the preferred locations. This allows assessment of chlorine activity throughout the entire chiller. It is important to know the amount of hypochlorous acid the carcasses are actually being exposed to and for how long. Monitoring only the incoming water or the make-up water is not sufficient as this water is diluted in the chiller. These measurements should be taken on an hourly basis to accurately determine the conditions.

How does chlorine work?

Chlorine is a bactericide that works to destroy the bacterial cell wall. Free chlorine is a measure of the combined amounts of hypochlorous acid (HOCl-), and hypochlorite ion (OCl-). The pH of the solution determines the ratio and form that free chlorine is in. Hypochlorous acid is 100 times more powerful at killing bacteria than hypochlorite ion. At pH 5.0-6.0, over 95% of the free chlorine is in the form of hypochlorous acid.

It is generally thought that hypochlorous acid kills bacteria by oxidizing essential bacterial enzymes, thereby disrupting the metabolism of the organism. The germicidal efficacy of hypochlorous acid is due to the relative ease with which it can penetrate the cell wall. This penetration is comparable to that of water, and can be attributed to its modest size (low molecular weight) and its electrical neutrality (absence of an electrical charge). Hypochlorite ion (OCl-) is a weaker oxidizing agent compared to hypochlorous acid and its negative charge impedes its ability to penetrate an organism’s cell wall. Hence, hypochlorite ion is far less effective at killing bacteria.

How much SAS® will my plant need?

The amount of SAS® required to achieve that target in a given location depends on the pH and alkalinity of the incoming water, the type of chlorine being added and other OLR chemicals that may be present. The target pH for all chlorinated processing water is 5.0-6.0. If SAS® is being used alone such as in a scalder or finishing chiller, the target ph is 2.0.

How do I control or automate my system?

The addition of SAS® for pH control is a simple matter and can be done with a number of commercially available systems. Care should be taken with the application of the equipment to insure proper control. The measurement and control of chlorine addition is more complicated than pH because of the variability of water chemistry and quality. Systems are available to control by measuring free chlorine but these are often not suitable for water with high levels of solids and/or fats. ORP measurements can be used to control chlorine addition but must be done in conjunction with pH measurement. It is also important to determine the typical conditions of the water through manual testing to establish the proper set points for the equipment. In all cases the use of automated equipment cannot eliminate the need for regular manual testing to verify the proper operation of the equipment.

How do I determine my set points for the delivery system?

To determine your chill tank water profile, the total chlorine, free chlorine, and pH should be measured at the bird entrance, middle, and bird exit of the chiller or pre-chiller. This assesses how much chlorine activity is present. Initially these measurements should be taken on an hourly basis for the best results. Using the data collected, the optimum set points can be determined for automated control systems. Even if automated systems are utilized, regular tests should be conducted to verify operation of the system.

AFG

How should AFG be handled in the mill?

AGF should be handled just like salt. Care should be taken to keep the product dry and equipment should be flushed with grain or meal. The product may be added to the mixer by hand, micro machine or through the minor ingredient scale.

What is the proper inclusion rate?

Our data shows the greatest return at levels of 5 – 10 lb/ ton of feed included in the rations for the first 28 – 30 days. AFG may be fed throughout the growout with small broilers or Cornish hens or for ammonia control in larger birds.

Can AFG be used in antibiotic free programs?

Yes, AFG in considered a natural product and is recognized as GRAS.

ParlorPal®

How can an effective footbath help my profitability?

Economic analysis of dairy cow foot health has estimated that lameness can result in a 30% loss in milk production returns per cow. Use of Parlor Pal® in footbaths costs only pennies per cow.

Why does it matter what I put in my footbath?

Many of the products used in footbaths are selected from “customary practices”. Copper sulfate and zinc sulfate are not labeled for footbath application – they have become widely used because no effective alternative products were available, until now.

Why should I trust that ParlorPal® is safe?

Parlor Pal® has been used in Western U. S. dairies for over 8 years. Parlor Pal is manufactured in our plant in Walbridge, Ohio to ISO 9000 quality standards to assure composition and content. Parlor Pal® is classified as non-hazardous and is used in animal feeds and for human consumption. University trials have confirmed the safety of Parlor Pal® used as a footbath or in bedding applications.

Why use ParlorPal® in place of acidified copper sulfate (ACS)?

“ACS” is a blend of copper sulfate and citric acid, a weak carbon-chain acid. The “citric acid-copper” product cannot maintain footbath pH at critical levels. Also, heavy metals (copper or zinc) can still accumulate in your lagoon.

Is ParlorPal® safe for the environment?

The major component in Parlor Pal® is composed of sodium, hydrogen and sulfur (no heavy metals).

How does ParlorPal®’s cost compare to copper sulfate?

Copper sulfate’s cost varies greatly as does availability. Depending on current pricing for copper sulfate, Parlor Pal® may cost only 1/3 as much.

LS-PWT2®

How do I decide what rate to use?

Two factors determine how much LS-PWT2® is needed on a given farm: end-use of LS-PWT2® (crop acidification or chlorine management) and characteristics of the water source (pH and alkalinity). Refer to the rate chart for the appropriate amount in each situation.

How much LS-PWT2® is too much?

The pH of the drinking water should not go below a pH of 3.0.

Is alkalinity important when testing water?

Yes. Alkalinity is a measure of the carbonates in a water source that will bind to the LS-PWT2® or any water acidifier. Only after all of the carbonates in the water are bound by the LS-PWT2® will the pH begin to drop. The higher the alkalinity of a water source, the more LS-PWT2® or any other acid will be needed to reach the target pH.

What is the difference between LS-PWT2® and citric acid or vinegar?

LS-PWT2® is a strong, mineral acid while citric acid and vinegar are weak organic acids. LS-PWT2® has a low addition rate and a pleasing taste to birds while organic acids such as citric acid taste bitter causing birds to reduce water consumption.

How long should I run LS-PWT2®?

LS-PWT2® should be run for the first 7-10 days the birds are placed in the house, around feed changes, and prior to processing. More information about usage for different types of birds can be found here.

What is pH?

pH is the measure of the number of hydrogen ions in solution. The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the lower the pH will be.

Will birds drink water at a low pH of 3.5?

Yes, if it is acidified with a mineral acid such as LS-PWT2®. Because mineral acids easily donate hydrogen ions into a solution, they have a low addition rate and a pleasing taste to birds.

I have never run LS-PWT2® before. Is it ok to run it mid-flock?

If you have never used LS-PWT2® before, it is recommended to use it for the first time while the house is empty. Because LS-PWT2® cleans the water lines so thoroughly, dislodging lots of biofilm and residual material in the lines, a high pressure flush is needed to remove that debris from the water lines. Using LS-PWT2® with birds in the house for the first time will make it difficult to remove all of the debris dislodged by the cleaning process possibly causing clogged nipples and birds to ingest the dirty material.

How do I properly test water to determine addition rate of LS-PWT2®?

A sample of the water can be taken either at the well or at the entrance to the house. A pool test kit or test strips can be used to determine the pH and alkalinity of the water source. Once that is known, use the chart below to determine addition rate.

Do I need to make fresh solution everyday?

No. Unlike antibiotics and other water additives, LS-PWT2® is very stable when mixed. A stock solution of LS-PWT2® will maintain its potency for at least 30 days.

Does LS-PWT2® help bird performance?

Yes. By acidifying the crop, LS-PWT2® helps the bird in digestion and the maintenance of healthy gut microflora.

How does crop acidification work?

Many have experienced success with water acidification programs that are properly designed to deliver the right pH at the right times.. But given that water acidification doesn’t seem to change the pH in the intestines, how does it work? The answer seems to lie in the difference between the original pattern of gut movement and digestion in birds and the altered pattern on modern commercial diets. There are several areas in a bird’s gut where movement is actually a two-way street. When a bird was eating whole grain and bugs, the meal would go from the proventriculus to the gizzard for grinding. Then the gizzard would send the meal backwards to the proventriculus for another acid bath. This might happen 5 or 6 times until the meal was ground finely enough to move on to the intestines. In a commercial mash or pelleted diet, this back and forth movement between the gizzard and the proventriculus is dramatically reduced so there is very little acid contact time of the meal in the proventriculus. With a diet that includes whole grains this back and forth movement is frequently repeated before the meal is allowed to enter the intestine increasing acid contact time many fold. The most plausible explanation for the efficacy of acidifying water below a pH of 4.0 in improving performance and in impacting Salmonella and necrotic enteritis is that by acidifying the ingesta in the crop, that low-pH contact time lost to impaired gizzard reflux is being compensated for.

Will LS-PWT2® clog my drinker lines?

No. It is the debris being dislodged from the dirty drinker system that could possible clog the lines if it isn’t flushed out promptly and thoroughly.

How long should I leave LS-PWT2® in the lines when I clean between flocks?

The first time you use LS-PWT2® in a house for cleaning, it should only be left in the lines about 8 hours due to the large amounts of debris that is removed during the cleaning process. This will facilitate the removal of this gelatinous material from the drinker system. After LS-PWT2® has been used to clean the drinker system, then it can be left in the lines as long as 24 hours prior to flushing.

How often should I clean my drinkers?

At the end of every flock and after running any type of water additive such as electrolytes or vitamins.

Should LS-PWT2® be run after I use electrolytes or vitamins?

Yes. This will remove any residual material from the water additives that can be a food source for bacteria.

Is LS-PWT2® approved for animal consumption?

Yes. LS-PWT2® is approved by the FDA as an animal feed additive.

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